Conclusions for each session

During Encuentros ChileGlobal Rotterdam 2015, we conducted 8 parallel sessions, lead by more than one speaker each. Each session started with a presentation and ended with a discussion and Q&A.

We wanted to share the conclusions we gathered from these sessions.

You can download the PDF with all the conclusions.

Productive Regions

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  • Chile needs to think in multi-scale solutions (or multi-level: local, regional, national) on how to diversify its productive landscape to make it less dependent on mining.
  • These solutions should be thought and generated together with all different involved parties, such as society, government and companies.
  • Planning is essential to achieve the latter.

Social Infraestructure

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  • The involvement of the community in decision-making and bottom-up approaches plays a relevant role in this moment of social changes and energy transitions in our cities. Thus, The government should guarantee and promote the presence of democratic debates in our neighborhoods, local government and cities.
  • Chile has already the tools and resources to develop more equal and sustainable cities. However, authorities do not use the high potential of our urban planning instruments to overcome inequality and to develop cities and neighborhoods spatially just. The control of the land is one of the most important elements to control the development of cities and to build the social infrastructure that we need.
  • The complexity and continuous changes in the cities have revealed the relevance of incorporate integral approaches for the development of infrastructure and urban projects. The collaboration among Local Government, private sector, researchers and society is a key element to achieve sustainable cities.

Social Equity

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  • Inequality in Chile is strongly determined by high levels of segregation. Hence, income inequality plays a greater role in determining gender inequality than the other way around.
  • The accountability systems and mechanism put in place with current reforms (like in education) need to pay closer attention to what is being measured and how it is valued. Measurements that aim to increase equality and equity in education ought to incorporate existing inequalities in the measurements criteria, otherwise they are likely to reproduce and reinforce existing patterns of inequality.
  • Chile is historically an exceptionally unequal country. Inequality is not only economic, but rather underpinned by political, social and cultural institutions (formal and informal). In this sense, it is not the market what defines inequality in Chile, but a whole array of social and political choices that maintain a highly unequal distribution of power among different actors. Thus, in order to change this historical trend, the unequal relations of power existing in the country ought to be reverted.


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  • Pooling risks in a national fund for the Chilean healthcare system: the rich pay for the poor, the young for the elderly, the healthy for the sick, and men for women. In a system based on solidarity.
  • Good quality of health care, always thinking in the people. “There is nothing more important than the dignity of people” Erasmus / Dr. Jimenez.
  • Health care systems are complex, and need years to organize them and to achieve good quality, comprehensiveness, and affordability for the entire population. Nevertheless its very important to work towards this aims


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  • The relationship between social equity and quality public education is symmetrical.
  • The way out of this model social segregation, caused mainly by the Chilean educational structure, could be a public school system that can attract the middle class.
  • We need to carry out initiatives to promote stable transformations that may give way to the consolidation of an inclusive and democratic educational model and can provide the welfare and equity to all citizens.

Natural Resources

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  • Problems associated to the exploitation of different natural resources are related between them.
  • Knowledge (research) is a key factor for detecting, creating and applying solutions for problems related to sustainable exploitation of natural resources.
  • Even if the solution to a problem related to sustainable exploitation of natural resources is known and feasible to apply, it could not be implemented due to political decisions.


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  • From a general perspective, the transition to renewable energies will impact how cities look like. Every technology has a particular effect on land use and we will see how the decisions made, will change the landscape. Energy technologies change landscapes, either in our city, or another.
  • From a household perspective, energy scenarios will promote efficient use of energy.
  • Technologies that integrate water and energy concepts will allow energy savings and resources recycling at the same time.
  • Building exteriors (skins) may also provide new options to increase efficiency.
  • Smart home appliances may be aware of the energy grid status and be able to control their operations for a collaborative energy balance.

Sustainable Development in Emergency Context

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  • During the last ten years over 300,000 families have been affected by disasters in Chile, especially, earthquakes, tsunamis, fires, volcano eruptions and floods.
  • Between 2008 and 2013, 165 million people were displaced worldwide by disasters, an average of 27 million a year, many of them displaced from urban areas.
  • In the coming decades, global risk of displacement associated with disasters is predicted to increase, and rapid unplanned urban growth in many low to middle-income countries is expected to be one of its main drivers.
  • Chile needs to make important improvements for the ‘Disaster Cycle’, namely in preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation.